History of soccer of the european game.

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History of soccer of the european game.

 It's 1912  and what you are seeing is the very first football world championship final caught on film.

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Conventional wisdom has it that England has been world champions just once in 1966.

But within this unique footage lies the secret of two world championship titles long forgotten when England beat Denmark in the final of the 1912 Stockholm Olympic football tournament the world championship was theirs for the second time in these pre-world cup days when the Olympic football tournament was the world's premier competition England were the original masters the inventors and the most influential nation in the evolution of the game the English may have invented the game of football.

But much of the early innovation came from Scotland and it was against the backdrop of the docks and industry on the River Clyde in Glasgow that the first revolution in football happened at the very first international match between Scotland and England in 1872  Scotland had developed a passing running game through their oldest team queen's park whereas in England they predominantly played a dribbling game where individual skill was the only thing that counted so you can imagine the culture shock in the first game where an English player would have come up to ascot and the Scott would have kicked the ball away and the English players must have thought what's he doing so everywhere you go in the world now you're looking at teams at the pass and run.

That game came out of the western Scotland cricket ground saint Andrews day 1872.

The scots invented it further south in the Lancashire conurbation based around the River Mersey on the port of Liverpool the scots were hugely influential in helping popularize the game the first English champions Preston north end were famous for their scots professors by the time of this Preston wolves match in 1905  football had become the entertainment for the working class crowds of up to thirty thousand were not uncommon there was nowhere in the world that came close understandably when FIFA had been formed the year before the British were less than interested there is in a sense cultural and political isolationism and football is just part of society and reflects society.

So the British empire was at its height when FIFA was founded so you can imagine the four home nations thinking well why should we join FIFA we invented the game what on earth could they tell us about how to play the game the league football was the staple diet for supporters but the allure of watching or playing for your country remains strong in 1907 with the scots wearing the rosemary colors of pink and primrose the annual match was recorded on film for the first time it was part of the home international championship involving wales and Ireland the oldest international tournament dating back to 1884. in 1908 a second tournament was added to the calendar when football was included as an official sport at the Olympics for the first time in the London games of that year.

Great Britain was represented by the England amateur side then the equal of the professionals this England team not only became the first official world champions at the London Olympics but they also played a pioneering role in the spread of football around Europe the tours by the English amateurs were fundamental to the development of the game in continental Europe the central European cities of Prague Budapest and Vienna were especially favored destinations in Italy the English influence was also strong and at the time of this Italy France international in 1912 the most important figure in Italian football was a man called Vittorio Pozzo who had learned about the game while studying in England Pozzo was the coach of the Italian team at the Stockholm Olympics where he met an Austrian called Hugo Maisel together they would change the course of football in Europe.

Like at the Stockholm Olympics Mizell invited an English coach called jimmy hogan to Vienna.

Hogan was to have a profound effect on football in central Europe helping to develop a distinctive style that became known as the Danubian school in this pre-war amateur era England remained unrivaled the Olympic final may have been the world championship but the fa cup final at the old crystal palace was still the greatest sporting spectacle on earth in 1913 a world record crowd of 121 000 came to see the two great club sides of the era Aston villa and Sunderland during his stay in England Pozzo had been greatly influenced by the passion and the physical nature of the game which was in contrast to how most continentals played vigoroso Pero nonviolent el Calcio per lux foreign. 

It was from the three great cities of central Europe Prague Budapest in Vienna that the first challenge to Britain as the major European superpower came with two of the three cities lying on the river Danube the distinctive and successful style of football that these cities produced took its name from the great river before the great war all three cities had been united under the Habsburg monarchy but with different languages and customs it had never been a happy alliance on the football pitch the rivalry was intense millions died in the great warfighting over a small strip of land on the western front but for the peoples of central Europe, the end of the war saw the whole scale redrawing of national boundaries Czechoslovakia with its capital in Prague was created as a political entity for the first time and football became an ever more powerful expression of this nationalist feeling in 1919.

An unofficial Czech Slovakian team took part in the allied games at the Pershing Stadium in France where they beat Belgium the united states and Canada on the way to the final a year later the Czechoslovaks would lose to host Belgium in the final of the Antwerp Olympics but here they beat host France to win the title outside of Britain Prague had one of the most sophisticated club networks on mainland Europe Sparta Prague had won the affections of the cities working-class while Slavia had attracted the more literary set in the capital by the mid-1920s footballers from all over Europe were being enticed to play for them as the two struggled for supremacy before huge crowds have by the mid-1920s the idea of a European cup for clubs was gaining strength thanks largely to the efforts of Hugo Maisel in 1927 it became a reality when Sparta Prague met rapid Vienna in the first final of the Atropa cup.

The present European cup may date from 1955 that the very first European champions were not real Madrid but Sparta.

Who won this final over the following 12 years the metropole cup captured the imagination of mainland Europe um before the river Danube winds its way into Croatia it passes through Budapest a city at the heart of football's Danubian legend here too inter-ethnic rivalries helped take football to a higher plane the predominantly Jewish club mtk Budapest won 10 titles in a row between 1914 and 1925 coached by jimmy hogan the Hungarians were famous for their skillful short passing game in 1928 ference varos the club of the german community won not only the Hungarian championship and cup but also the Atropa cup the first of only six clubs to do the fabled treble of the league cup and European cup if the heart of the Danubian legend rest in Budapest then the soul lies 250 kilometers upstream in the city of Vienna.

It was  here  that this legend was born and where it  reached its zenith  1920s Vienna was a hotbed of political  intrigue  the social democrats of red Vienna  created a sports movement based on the  amateur ethic  that they hoped would bolster working-class solidarity  they were skeptical of big clubs like  rapid who although working class in  origins played in what the social  democrats perceived as a bourgeoisie  league  they were fighting a losing battle  in 1920 Austria became the first country  outside of Britain to accept  professionalism  as football became a major spectator  sport  three years later a crowd estimated that  a hundred thousand watched the Italy  Austria match in Vienna  a continental record that stood until  after the second world war  football in central europe was rapidly  approaching the standard of the British  isles  by 1931 it was arguably as good  and the legend of the Austrian wonder  team was born that year  after Scotland were beaten five  the wonder team was the creation of Hugo  Maison  who as well as running the Austrian  football association  was the team's coach  from 1931 Austria were beaten just twice  in the next three years .

they were unlucky to lose one of those to England in London in 1932.  indeed that heroic defeat only added to the mystique that grew up around the wonder team like Hungary and Czechoslovakia the Austrians relied on sublime skills learned on the street shunning the more physical aspects of the game but therein lay its downfall a downfall that was to test the friendship of  Maisel and Pozzo to the limit if the 1920s had belonged to the  Danubian school then the 1930s were the domain of a  nation that lay to the south of the central European powers Italy foreign more than any leader of the time  Mussolini realized the political value of sport in 1929 Vittorio Pozzo became Italian coach for the third time over the course of the next decade the  Italians swept all before them competition for the national teams of  Europe had been introduced in 1927 at the same time as the Atropa cup.

The new international cup the forerunner of the current European championship was also the brainchild of Hugo Maisel in 1930 Italy.

Became the first European champions on the train journey back home having won the cup in Budapest  Pozzo dropped it chipping off a small fragment  Italy's first national league kicked off in 1929  and Mussolini was often seen at matches especially those involving Lazio as Syria ah grew in wealth and importance it became home to numerous foreign stars  like the top scorer at the first world cup in 1930  Guillermo staff from Argentina four months later he made his debut in this match between Lazio and genoa one of just over a hundred foreigners to appear in the league in the 1930s some Argentines Brazilians and Uruguayans of Italian descent even played for the national team football gave Mussolini a profile and he used it to good effect though there is some debate as to how much he really liked the game as they were not members of FIFA England would not be there.

The defeats of English football 11  wearing white shirts by Czechoslovakia in their first international in Prague for 35 years has caused critics much discussion on the question of whether English soccer is as preeminent as it used to be and the home side playing very precise football delight their supporters by shattering the legend of English supremacy after this defeat a month before the finals potter said the English would have progressed no further than the quarterfinals had they been in Italy in the event the 1934 world cup was overshadowed by controversy especially the alleged manipulation of referees by the hosts nowhere was this more evident than in the semi-final between potts as  Italy and mises Austria the incident ended the friendship between poster and Maisel that goal also meant Italy were in the final where Eklund.

The controversial Swedish referee was again in charge which did little to quell suspicious minds Italy faced another of the Danubian school Czech Slovakia having gone a goal behind the Italians equalized with just nine minutes left in extra time Italy scored the winner after a handball by mirza was ignored by the referee Italy were world champions though on their return to Prague the Czechoslovakian team received a  tumultuous welcome Italian supporters rally to hybrid urge their men into victory in the great international and the stands are packed with some sixty thousand spectators and tremendous enthusiasm already it can't be the heat so it must be excitement or spaghetti prince Arthur of connecting with the buried senior grundy shakes hands first with arsenal sorry England wearing white shirts than with the Italian team in England the world cup had gone almost unnoticed when the Italians came to London five months after winning the world cup.

It was billed as the match of the century.

It later became known as the battle of hybrid as tempest fleet as early as the second minute Italy was down to ten men through injury to orsi up in less than a quarter of an hour a  nasty shot for the team which is referred to as world soccer champions the Italians fought back and although they lost 3-2 it was now their turn to consider themselves moral winners isolationism was very much the order of the day in England the English saw little reason to question their superiority despite the growing number of defeats experienced abroad herbert Chapman manager of the arsenal team was one Englishman who did follow developments on the continent along with his friends' mice lompotso  Chapman was the third of the great napoleons of interwar football in Europe.

He joined arsenal in 1925 a club that  had yet to win a trophy  football between 1920 and 1930 by and  large was dominated by  by teams from the north and specifically  by Huddersfield town  and then herbert Chapman who had already  guided  Huddersfield town to three consecutive  league championships  moved to arsenal and within five years  Chapman had taken arsenal to the 1930 fa  cup final  and then the following year they became  the first London team to win  a league championship  in the 1930 fa cup final Chapman's two  clubs came head to head as arsenal  played husband  like Pozzo and Mizel Chapman was an  innovator  it was he who first pulled a third man  into defense  and before the 1930 final even tried to  sign a foreign  but the transfer of rudy Haydn the  goalkeeper of the wonder team  was blocked by the ministry of labour  one of the many hurdles Chapman faced in  his career  famous for the appearance of the graf  zeppelin the 1930 finals saw arsenal win  the first of seven trophies  in a decade they completely dominated .

Here's Mr herbert Chapman the famous manager with his lads at hybrid and now I'm going to ask him to introduce him to you, Mr. Chapman, I must apologize this morning I'm so husky I can scarcely speak in January 1934 Chapman died at age 58  it's not inconceivable to think of herbert Chapman as uh if he'd lived even another five or six years possibly moving on from arsenal to becoming an England manager Chapman would have had England in the world cups the next night you know he understood football as an international game he understood what we understand as modern football obviously arsenal lost a lot when  Chapman died but arguably English football lost a lot as well particularly the England national team in an increasingly professional game the strict adherence to the amateur ethic meant isolation had also been the name of the game for Germany.

The biggest nation in Europe though in  1936  berlin hosted the Olympic games hijacked by the nazis for their propaganda 1936.

Olympics are remembered as one of the most political ever the games left an indelible impression on those taking part in the world cup was now the premier football tournament but the final between Italy and an  Austrian team coached by jimmy hogan still attracted huge interest Italy's win playing a strong physical game was celebrated as much as their world cup triumph time politics and nationalist sentiments ensured the club football maintained a high profile in central europe during the 1930s  prague by then one of europe's most fashionable capitals remained a favorite destination as clubs competed for the best players on the continent in 1938 thanks to the signing of pepe bitsan from rapid vienna slavia prague won the mitropa cup.

The last chapter in the evolving story of football during the interwar years was written in France at the finals of the 1938 world cup absent again were England and Uruguay along with the Austrians whose players now represented Germany after the angelus of earlier in the year with the death of chapman in 1934 and mizel in 1937  potso was the undisputed master of european football he could virtually do as he pleased  is  here  made them good  italy reached the final where they faced  hungary  having beaten the czechs in 1934  final and the austrians in 1936 olympic final here was a chance to vanquish the  danubian school  though they had to face a hostile  reception from emigre italians  who had fled mussolini's regime  this was a much more polished italian  team than in 1934 .

And for their second goal, Italy gave the  Hungarians a dose of their own medicine Miata passing when it was easier to score before piola finished it off three major finals in the 1930s  three opponents from the Danubian school and the Italians had beaten them all had achieved something no coach had  managed to do before  or has done since leading a team to two  world cup victories  in the decade of the dictators  Mussolini's Italy was the masters on  the football field were in Europe put a stop to the world cup and Olympics but remarkably football carried on  almost uninterrupted in most countries  until the conflict reached its savage  worst in 1944  if one thing had ranked the Italians in the 1930s  it was their inability to beat the  English in the three matches they played so when the England team arrived in turn.

In may 1948  it was a chance for the Italians to see to some unfinished business I felt that we probably had one of the strongest squads that England have had for a great number of years and uh straight after the war when people like tommy lawton ray carter wolf manion and stan matthews tommy lawton were playing and  the team more or less selected itself  at the age of 62 potso was taking charge  of his 95th  and last international based on the  remarkable torino team that perished in  a plane crash a year later  this was a talented italian team and  they were still  world champions  england the pretenders to the throne  were slowly being drawn out of their  self-imposed isolation  and had even agreed to take part in the  1950 world cup in brazil.

In the event it was a remarkable match  that reinforced the english belief  that they were still the best team in  the world  the four-nil scoreline remains italy's worst-ever home defeat pot so was sacked he was a remarkable man  in so many ways but he was getting on  to when we played them me  i don't know how old he would be but  certainly been in the job a long time  and so they were ready to see a change  but a delightful man to meet and to talk  to  very knowledgeable about the game it was  the end of a truly remarkable era and now it's all aboard about half a  million pounds worth of soccer stars off to win the world cup for england or bust the ball in the attempt england's first world cup adventure was an unmitigated disaster far from winning it they didn't even get past the first round  winterbottom may have been England's first coach but his role was limited .

When I looked upon those games I thought how stupid we are we it's typical where  isolation is in every way we don't see the need for preparation whether it was lack of preparation bad luck or just the skill of the Americans the disaster of the one-nil defeat against the united states was seen as symbolic by the rest of the  world  but only as an aberration by the English it was just one of those games that that when you play and you could play them 99  times out of 100 and you know probably win by four or five goals, I think we heard the woodwork on four or five instances in that particular game and it was one of those games along with the game went you weren't going to win it  as england were being unceremoniously  knocked out of the world cup.

A new and very different form of the  Danubian school was rising to prominence  behind the iron curtain  in what was now termed eastern europe  based around the players of the army  side honved  the legend of the hungarian Aranha at  or  golden team was beginning to take shape  at first the iranchapat were viewed with  some suspicion in western europe  after all they were communists and  soldiers to boot  volatility  the first signs that the hungarians were  developing into a formidable team  became apparent to the west during the  1952 helsinki olympics  in the final they met Yugoslavia and  although the professional nations of the  west  were barred from sending their strongest  teams the manner in which the hungarians  won the title was still  very impressive  football was just one of 16 gold medals, Hungary won in Helsinki  Hungary were placed third in the medals  table behind the united states and the  soviet union  a remarkable achievement for a country  of just nine million people  naturally they received the hero's.



Welcome on their return and naturally the politicians were quick to capitalize on the success of Helsinki the political adventure was the most public manifestation of government backing for sport in Hungary came with the building of a huge new stadium in Budapest in true communist fashion it was called  the nep stadium  the people stadium  the fact that many of the Helsinki athletes also help with the building at  some stage  only added to the attraction when it was  opened in august  1953  may have been building a reputation as  the best national team in the world  but the honda of pushkassenko were doing  the same at club level  Hungarian football look set  foreign was the coaching inspiration behind the Aranha at it helped that he had so many  world-class players in his team .

But above all they were, innovators players were given the freedom to experiment and within this group lay the genesis of the total football of the modern game in november 1953 the Hungarians came to london to play england there was huge interest in the match not just in hungary but across the whole of europe england's  81 years of invincibility at home to foreign teams looked decidedly under threat the great wembley match began with right winning the toss from push ash and exchange of courtesies of a very friendly character which is how it should be of course again perfect coordination led to a goal for hungary in less than a minute  the scorer's name is pronounced hidegkuti I hope the Olympic champions now started an absolute orgy of scoring their second came through ditakuti.

The third was a real beauty just watch  the smart footwork by pushka so the match ended with England's first defeat at home by a foreign side  their heaviest defeat for 72 years  six months later the hungarians made the most important train journey of their lives after 16 years the world cup was returning to Europe  Hungary had reached the final the last  time it had been held in Europe this time they were favorites to go one  better  in their way stood a nation still  reeling from the effects of war  it was ironic that when peace came to Germany football stopped during the war it had continued almost  uninterrupted  amid the chaos and hardship the  championship did start again  in 1948.

With little other entertainment, football became hugely popular to a  level not witnessed before in the  country  in 1950 stuttgart was also the scene for  west germany's first ever international  within the first 10 seconds of their  first game west Germany almost scored foreign had got west Germany off to a winning start sepp Herberger had been appointed  national team coach in 1936  a post he held for 28 years no  individual contributed more to the  evolution of the game in Germany than  Herberger is it was against this background that  Herberger took his team to Switzerland for the 1954 world cup at the start no one gave them a chance but by hook and by crook  they reached the final where they faced the hungarians unbeaten in 31 games stretching back four years.

On the day of the final in the burn, it had  been raining hard  it was the one thing that gave the  germans hope they knew that man for man  they were no match but the soggy pitch would make life difficult for their skillful opponents  the hungarians had won the admiration of  many in western europe  but there was a perception in the east that a communist country would not be allowed to win the world cup that left english referee bill ling with potentially the most difficult match of his life hungary raced into an early two-goal  lead  but within 10 minutes the Germans were back on level terms though grusich the Hungarian goalkeeper was clearly impeded as germany equalized there were no more goes until just  before the end of a match the hungarians  dominated.

It was the germans though who made the  breakthrough to lead 3-2  be  germany's victory was the most unlikely  outcome  but then the world cup final was  becoming noted for producing unlikely  results and controversy  the hungarians to this day believe they  were not allowed to win that final  but it was a defeat taken with customary  good grace  in Germany, itself disbelief combined  with a national euphoria  unknown since the war it marked  germany's re-entry into the cultural  mainstream of europe  and laid the foundations of football in  success that made the nation one of the  major  european superpowers of the second half  of the 20th century  foreign  in the wake of the hungarian uprising in  1956 and the crushing of it by the  soviets  most of hungary's great players and  coaches left for the west  where they continued to influence the  development of modern football on every  continent  that is the legacy of the urantia patch  by the end of the 1950s the european  champions cup was being given a glorious  baptism by real madrid  and the european championship was  beginning to shape the fixture list of  national teams  the landscape of european football was  to change for good  you